Collagen types I and III (Col I and Col III) are the major fibrillar collagens produced by fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in the adult heart. Fibrillar collagen of the heart provides the structural scaffolding for cardiomyocytes and coronary vessels and imparts cardiac tissue with physical properties that include stiffness and resistance to deformation. In addition, fibrillar collagen may also act as a link between contractile element of adjacent cardiomyocytes and as a conduit of information that is necessary for cell function. As in other organs, collagen turnover of normal adult heart results from the equilibrium between the synthesis and degradation of Col I and Col III. A number of factors have been described that may alter the balance in favor of either the synthesis (e.g., angiotensin II-ANG II-) or the degradation. Predominance of synthesis over degradation leads to increased Col I and Col III deposition or fibrosis that accompanies cardiac diseases such as hypertensive heart disease. Fibrosis alters myocardial structure and function and adversely afects the clinical outcome of hypertensive patients. Various lines of evidence suggest that besides hypertension, systemically and/or locally produced ANG II may participate in the development of hypertensive myocardial fibrosis via activation of ANG II type 1 receptors (AT(1)R). The potential clinical relevance of this possibility is linked to the ability of antihypertensive drugs such as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and AT(1)R antagonists (ARAs) to reverse myocardial fibrosis beyond their antihypertensive efficacy.