Objectives: We sought to determine whether the changing practice of interventional cardiology has been associated with improved outcomes for women, and how these outcomes compare with those for men.
Background: Previous work from the early 1990s suggested women are at a higher risk than men for adverse outcomes after percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs). From 1994 to 1999 data were collected on 33,666 consecutive hospital admissions for a PCI in Northern New England. Multivariate models were used to adjust for differences in case-mix across year of procedure when comparing outcomes. Direct standardization was used to calculate adjusted rates.
Results: From 1994 to 1999, the case-mix worsened for both women and men, although women had more co-morbidities than did men throughout the period. Stent use increased over time (>75% in 1999). Concomitantly, the need for emergency coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) decreased significantly (p(trend) < or = 0.001; in 1999: 0.06% for women, 0.05% for men). Although the emergency CABG rates were higher for women at the beginning of the study, by the end, they were comparable (adjusted odds ratio 1.34, 95% confidence interval 0.76 to 2.38, p = 0.315). The myocardial infarction (MI) rates decreased over time for both women (by 29.7%, p(trend) = 0.378) and men (by 37.6%, p(trend) = 0.009) and did not differ by gender. The mortality rates did not decrease significantly over time and were not significantly different between the genders (mean 1.21% for women, 1.06% for men; p = 0.096).
Conclusions: Concurrent with the changing practice of PCI, and despite treating sicker patients, there have been important improvements in post-PCI CABG and MI rates for women, as well as for men. Unlike in earlier years, there are no longer significant differences in outcomes by gender.