Mercury vapor released from one, two and four amalgam restorations in pregnant rats and mercury concentrations in maternal and fetal organs were studied. Dental treatment was given on day 2 of pregnancy. Mercury concentration in air samples drawn from each metabolism chamber with a rat were measured serially for 24 h on days 2, 8 and 15 of pregnancy. On each day of pregnancy, the amount of mercury in 24 h air samples was in proportion to the amalgam surface areas. Linear regression analysis showed relatively high correlation coefficients between the mercury content and amalgam surface areas, and the coefficients were statistically significant. A highly significant correlation was also found between the number of amalgam fillings and their surface areas. Mercury concentrations in major maternal organs with one, two and four amalgam fillings tended to increase with the increasing amalgam surface areas. Spearman's rank correlation test revealed significant correlations in the brain, liver, kidneys and placenta but not in the lung. Furthermore, significant correlations were also found between the mercury concentrations in all maternal organs and the amount of mercury in 24 h air samples on day 15 of pregnancy. Mercury concentrations in fetal brain, liver and kidneys were much lower than those of the dams but liver and kidneys showed positive correlations between the mercury content and maternal amalgam surface areas. Similar correlations were observed between the mercury concentrations in fetal organs and the amount of mercury in 24 h air samples on day 15 of pregnancy. In fetal brain, no significant correlations were found between either maternal amalgam surface areas or the amount of mercury in 24 h samples on day 15 of pregnancy but significant uptake of mercury was found in the samples from the dams given four amalgam fillings. The results of the present study demonstrated that mercury vapor released from the amalgam fillings in pregnant rats was distributed to maternal and fetal organs in dose-dependent amounts of the amalgam fillings.