Oxidative stress (OS) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). The aim of the study was to compare OS parameters in diabetic children and their first-degree relatives. Fifty diabetic children from the West Bohemian Region were examined as well as their 32 siblings (12 Boys and 20 girls) and 65 of their parents during a period of 6 months. Thirty healthy sex- and age-matched children studied before planned surgeries were normal controls for children, 40 healthy adult volunteers were controls for parents. OS parameters were evaluated in all participants of the study (superoxide dismutase, SOD; glutathione peroxidase, GSHPx; plasma antioxidant capacity, AOC; reduced glutathione, GSH; and malondialdehyde, MDA) and also Type 1 DM-associated antibodies (ICA and GADA). The results in diabetic children showed significantly lower GSHPx and AOC and increased MDA when compared with healthy children. Similar findings were found in their siblings but without statistical significance. It is consequently evident that decreased antioxidative protection and simultaneous free radical (FR) overproduction occur in diabetic children and that there is a similar, but not significant, tendency in their siblings. The findings warrant reducing OS in diabetic children and postponing disease onset in susceptible relatives.