Oxidative stress plays an important role in causing progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD). We examined the influence of add-on ANG II receptor blockade administered as losartan (50 mg/day for 1 mo) on oxidative stress and proinflammatory state of the kidney in patients with CKD. All subjects were taking an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor plus other antihypertensive agents. Oxidative stress to lipids and proteins was measured by an HPLC assay for malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyl concentration, respectively. Urinary inflammation was measured by monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) excretion rate. The etiology of CKD was type 2 diabetes mellitus in 12 and glomerulonephritis in 4 patients. There was no change in proteinuria or 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (BP) with add-on ANG II receptor blockade with losartan therapy. Before losartan therapy, urinary protein and albumin oxidation were 99 and 71% higher, respectively, compared with in plasma (P < 0.05). There was a 35% reduction in urinary oxidized albumin with add-on losartan therapy (P = 0.036). Urinary and plasma MDA were elevated compared with age-matched controls. Urinary MDA was significantly reduced from 4.75 +/- 3.23 to 3.39 +/- 2.17 micromol/g creatinine with add-on losartan therapy. However, plasma MDA or oxidized proteins did not change in response to additional ANG II blockade. A good correlation was seen between the change in urinary oxidized albumin and MCP-1 levels (r = 0.61, P = 0.012). These data demonstrate that oxidative damage to urinary protein and lipids can be reduced with additional ANG II receptor blockade, independently of reductions in proteinuria or BP. Urinary measurements of markers of oxidative damage to lipids and proteins appear to be more sensitive than plasma measurements in patients with CKD. The significant association of the change in urinary MCP-1 with a reduction in oxidative stress supports the role of the redox state in the kidney with renal fibrosis and progressive kidney damage.