GATE-16 and GABARAP are authentic modifiers mediated by Apg7 and Apg3

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Jan 17;300(3):637-44. doi: 10.1016/s0006-291x(02)02907-8.


GATE-16, GABARAP, and LC3 are three mammalian counterparts of yeast Apg8p/Aut7p. Here, we show that GATE-16 and GABARAP are authentic modifiers, as is the case of LC3 modification. The C-terminal Phe(117) of proGATE-16 and the C-terminal Leu(117) of proGABARAP are post-translationally cleaved to expose an essential Gly(116) within GATE-16 and GABARAP, with the products designated GATE-16-I and GABARAP-I, respectively. The Gly(116) within GATE-16 and GABARAP are essential for further formation of the intermediates between them and Apg7p(C572S) and Apg3p(C264S). When Apg7p and Apg3p are expressed, GATE-16-I and GABARAP-I are modified to a secondary ubiquitin-like modified form, GATE-16-II and GABARAP-II, respectively. GATE-16-I and GABARAP-I, but not LC3-I, localize to membrane compartments before their modification. These results indicate that GATE-16 and GABARAP are authentic modifiers, but that they have different biochemical characteristics from those of LC3.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
  • Animals
  • Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins
  • Autophagy-Related Protein 8 Family
  • Autophagy-Related Proteins
  • Binding Sites / physiology
  • CHO Cells
  • Carrier Proteins / genetics
  • Carrier Proteins / metabolism*
  • Cell Compartmentation / physiology
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Membrane / metabolism
  • Cricetinae
  • Humans
  • Ligases / genetics
  • Ligases / metabolism*
  • Microfilament Proteins
  • Microtubule-Associated Proteins / genetics
  • Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism*
  • Oligopeptides
  • Oxidoreductases / genetics
  • Oxidoreductases / metabolism*
  • Peptides / genetics
  • Protein Binding / physiology
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / genetics
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / metabolism
  • Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes


  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
  • Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins
  • Autophagy-Related Protein 8 Family
  • Autophagy-Related Proteins
  • Carrier Proteins
  • GABARAP protein, human
  • GABARAPL2 protein, human
  • MAP1LC3A protein, human
  • Microfilament Proteins
  • Microtubule-Associated Proteins
  • Oligopeptides
  • Peptides
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • FLAG peptide
  • Oxidoreductases
  • Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes
  • Ligases
  • ATG3 protein, human