Dysregulation of the annexin family protein family is associated with prostate cancer progression

Am J Pathol. 2003 Jan;162(1):255-61. doi: 10.1016/S0002-9440(10)63816-3.


Hormone refractory prostate cancer (PCa) is invariably lethal despite aggressive clinical treatment strategies. Detection strategies are needed to identify aggressive PCa before it becomes widely disseminated. Recently, two studies identified annexin 1 and 7 as potential biomarkers in the development of PCa progression. The annexins are a group of calcium-binding structural proteins that may play a role in the regulation of membrane trafficking, cellular adhesion, and cell signaling. Therefore the goal of this study is to simultaneously characterize the multiple members of the annexin family of genes in advanced PCa. Prostate samples from men with advanced hormone refractory PCa were compared to samples of hormone-naïve PCa and noncancerous prostate tissue. Samples from 15 patients with advanced hormone refractory PCa were used. To examine the annexin family, gene expression profiles from 21 noncancerous prostate tissues, 16 clinically localized PCas, and 20 hormone refractory PCa samples were used. By cDNA microarray analysis, annexins 1, 2, 4, 7, and 11 were significantly decreased in hormone refractory PCa when compared to localized hormone-naïve PCa with 2.2-, 1.5-, 1.3-, 1.4-, and 1.8-fold decreases, respectively (all P values <0.05). Interstudy validation of annexin family transcript expression was performed by meta-analysis of three other published prostate profiling studies. High-density tissue microarrays were used to validate a subset of annexins at the protein level by immunohistochemistry. Tissue microarray analysis revealed a significant decrease in protein expression for annexins 1, 2, 4, 7, and 11 in hormone refractory PCa as compared to localized PCa with 1.68-, 2.46-, 2.52-, and 3.01-fold decreases, respectively (Kruskal Wallis test, all P values P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were detected between the clinically localized PCa and noncancerous prostate tissues. These findings suggest that down-regulation of several members of the annexin family may contribute to PCa tumorigenesis. Annexins 1, 2, 4, 7, and 11 may play a role in tumor progression through distinct mechanisms or, alternatively, they may have redundant tumor suppressor activities. This study also suggests that a meta-analysis of existing gene expression data is useful in confirming findings from individual studies. Finally, down-regulation of several annexin family members may play a role in the development of the lethal PCa phenotype.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Annexins / genetics*
  • Annexins / metabolism
  • Carcinoma / genetics*
  • Carcinoma / metabolism
  • Carcinoma / pathology
  • Disease Progression
  • Down-Regulation*
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic*
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multigene Family*
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology


  • Annexins