A Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacterium (strain MOL722(T)) was characterized using phenotypic and molecular methods. Fatty acid analysis and biochemical examination indicated that the isolate belongs to the Gram-positive bacteria with low DNA G+C content, probably to the genus Paenibacillus. Direct sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene showed ambiguities, suggesting heterogeneity. Cloned 16S rDNA yielded seven different sequences varying at 15 positions, with one being an insertion. The isolate shares 98.5% sequence similarity with Paenibacillus sp. P15-9, but less than 94% similarity with other paenibacilli and bacilli. Phylogenetic analysis with different treeing methods revealed that strain MOL722(T), together with Paenibacillus sp. P15-9, forms a novel monophyletic clade within the genus Paenibacillus. Based on phenotypic and phylogenetic evidence, it is proposed that the unknown bacterium is classified as the novel species Paenibacillus turicensis sp. nov., the type strain of which is strain MOL722(T) (= DSM 14349(T) = NCCB 100011(T)).