Intracranial venous system: gadolinium-enhanced three-dimensional MR venography with auto-triggered elliptic centric-ordered sequence--initial experience

Radiology. 2003 Jan;226(1):203-9. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2261020670.


Purpose: To evaluate gadolinium-enhanced three-dimensional auto-triggered elliptic centric-ordered (ATECO) magnetic resonance (MR) venography for imaging of the intracranial venous system.

Materials and methods: ATECO MR venography was performed in 23 patients, eight of whom also underwent two-dimensional time-of-flight (TOF) MR venography for imaging of the intracranial venous system. Seventeen predefined venous structures were evaluated on all venograms by two neuroradiologists. Visualization of venous structures was defined as completely visible (including clearly pathologic), partially visible, or not visible. Readers were also asked to compare the visibility of these predefined structures on ATECO and TOF MR venograms, where available.

Results: Of the 23 patients, six had dural venous sinus disease. Of the remaining 17 healthy patients, five underwent both ATECO and TOF MR venography and 12 underwent ATECO MR venography alone. On ATECO MR venograms obtained in the healthy patients, visibility of the 17 predefined venous structures was complete in 92% (531 of 578) of evaluations. For the five normal TOF MR venograms, the rate of complete visibility of the same venous structures was 61% (104 of 170). The rate of complete visibility of the large dural venous sinuses was 99% for ATECO MR venograms and 75% for TOF MR venograms.

Conclusion: ATECO MR venography provides high-quality images of the intracranial venous anatomy and was superior to TOF MR venography for consistent complete visibility of venous structures.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Evaluation Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Cerebral Veins / anatomy & histology*
  • Cerebrovascular Disorders / diagnosis
  • Female
  • Gadolinium*
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged


  • Gadolinium