A road less travelled: large animal models in immunological research

Nat Rev Immunol. 2003 Jan;3(1):79-84. doi: 10.1038/nri977.


The main advances in immunology have been forged or underpinned by animal experiments. However, animal research now focuses excessively on one laboratory species, and there is too much redundant repetition and too few transfers from basic discovery to successful clinical application. These features can be improved markedly by placing more emphasis on biological relevance when evaluating animal models and by taking greater advantage of the unique experimental opportunities that are offered by large animals.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Allergy and Immunology*
  • Animals
  • Humans
  • Models, Animal*
  • Sheep
  • Swine