HIV-1 subtype C reverse transcriptase and protease genotypes in Zimbabwean patients failing antiretroviral therapy

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2002 Dec 10;18(18):1407-13. doi: 10.1089/088922202320935483.


HIV-1 drug resistance mutations have been identified and characterized mostly in subtype B HIV-1 infection. The extent to which antiretroviral drugs select for drug resistance mutations in non-subtype B HIV-1 is not known. We obtained HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease sequences from 21 Zimbabwean patients failing antiretroviral drug therapy. We compared these sequences with 56 published RT and protease subtype C sequences from untreated patients, 990 RT and 1140 protease subtype B sequences from treated patients, and 340 RT and 907 protease subtype B sequences from untreated patients and identified four mutation categories of subtype C HIV-1. Seventeen of the 21 patients (81%) had known drug resistance mutations. Mutations at 15 RT and 11 protease positions were more common in subtype C isolates than in subtype B isolates. HIV-1 subtype C-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy develop many of the known subtype B drug resistance mutations. Comparison of subtype C RT and protease sequences with a large database of subtype B sequences identified subtype C-specific polymorphisms and candidate drug resistance mutations.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use
  • Drug Resistance, Viral / genetics*
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Genotype
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy*
  • HIV Infections / virology
  • HIV Protease / genetics*
  • HIV Reverse Transcriptase / genetics*
  • HIV-1 / classification*
  • HIV-1 / enzymology
  • HIV-1 / genetics
  • Humans
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutation
  • Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Treatment Failure
  • Zimbabwe


  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
  • HIV Reverse Transcriptase
  • HIV Protease

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AY090839
  • GENBANK/AY090840
  • GENBANK/AY090841
  • GENBANK/AY090842
  • GENBANK/AY090843
  • GENBANK/AY090844
  • GENBANK/AY090845
  • GENBANK/AY090846
  • GENBANK/AY090847
  • GENBANK/AY090848
  • GENBANK/AY090849
  • GENBANK/AY090850
  • GENBANK/AY090851
  • GENBANK/AY090852
  • GENBANK/AY090853
  • GENBANK/AY090854
  • GENBANK/AY090855
  • GENBANK/AY090856
  • GENBANK/AY090857
  • GENBANK/AY090858
  • GENBANK/AY090859