Relationship between steroid hormone contraceptives and HPV, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical carcinoma

Int J Cancer. 2003 Mar 1;103(6):705-8. doi: 10.1002/ijc.10868.


Available data demonstrate an increase in the transcription of high-risk papillomaviruses by the 16alpha-hydroxylation of estrogens, which is in line with the epidemiologic data showing an increased cervical carcinogenesis risk for long-term contraceptive-using, HPV-infected women. No evidence exists for an increase in HPV-negative contraceptive users.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / epidemiology
  • Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / virology*
  • Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal*
  • Estrogens / metabolism
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hydroxylation
  • Papillomaviridae / physiology*
  • Papillomavirus Infections / virology*
  • Tumor Virus Infections / virology*
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology*


  • Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal
  • Estrogens