Lung cancer is associated with smoking and age, both of which are associated with comorbidity. We evaluated the impact of comorbidity on lung cancer survival. Data on 56 comorbidities were abstracted from the records of a cohort of 1,155 patients. Survival effects were evaluated with Cox regression (outcome crude death). The adjusted R(2) statistic was used to compare the survival variation explained by predictive variables. No comorbidity was observed in 11.7% of patients, while 54.3% had 3 or more (mean 2.97) comorbidities. In multivariate analysis, 19 comorbidities were associated with survival: HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, previous metastatic cancer, thyroid/glandular diseases, electrolyte imbalance, anemia, other blood diseases, dementia, neurologic disease, congestive heart failure, COPD, asthma, pulmonary fibrosis, liver disease, gastrointestinal bleeding, renal disease, connective tissue disease, osteoporosis and peripheral vascular disease. Only the latter was protective. Some of the hazards of comorbidities were explained by more directly acting comorbidities and/or receipt of treatment. Stage explained 25.4% of the survival variation. In addition to stage, the 19 comorbidities explained 6.1%, treatments 9.2%, age 3.7% and histology 1.3%. Thirteen uncommon comorbidities (prevalence <6%) affected 21.2% of patients and explained 3.5% of the survival variation. Comorbidity count and the Charlson index were significant predictors but explained only 2.5% and 2.0% of the survival variation, respectively. Comorbidity has a major impact on survival in early- and late-stage disease, and even infrequent deleterious comorbidities are important collectively. Comorbidity count and the Charlson index failed to capture much information. Clinical practice and trials need to consider the effect of comorbidity in lung cancer patients.
Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.