To investigate the etiological association of allelic loss at chromosomal regions containing tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in Taiwan, we examined 48 microdissected NSCLC samples for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at nine loci where TSGs are localized nearby. The associations of LOH at each locus with clinicoparameters and prognosis were also examined. The frequent LOH was observed using markers, D3S1285 near the FHIT gene (58.3%), D17S938 near the p53 gene (56.7%), D9S925 near the p16 gene (54.5%), and D13S153 near the RB gene (47.6%). The occurrence of LOH at each TSG locus was compared with the patients' clinicoparameters. The incidence of LOH at D17S938 (p53 gene) and D3S4545 (VHL gene) was significantly higher in squamous carcinoma tumors than in adenocarcinoma tumors (P = 0.003 and 0.024, respectively). LOH of these two loci also occurred frequently in tumors from smoker patients compared to that from nonsmoker patients (P = 0.013 and 0.025, respectively). LOH at D13S153 (RB gene) was also associated with smoking (P = 0.008). In addition, the prognostic analyses indicated that the patients with LOH at D18S535 (18q21, near the SMAD2/4 gene) had significantly longer post-operative survival time compared to those without LOH (P = 0.03). Our results suggested that LOH at FHIT, p53, and p16 genes may occur frequently in NSCLC patients in Taiwan. In addition, LOH at p53, RB, and VHL may associate with smoking or squamous carcinoma patients and LOH at SMAD2/4 may be correlated with better prognosis.