The aim of this study was to compare the success rates after 1 and 2 years of conventionally and early loaded pairs of unsplinted ITI implants supporting mandibular overdentures in edentulous patients. Twenty-four participants (age range 55-80 years) were randomly allocated with maximum concealment to two treatment groups. In the first group, the implants were allowed to heal for 12 weeks before being functionally loaded (control) and the second group had 6 weeks of healing with identical loading. All participants had new conventional complete maxillary and mandibular dentures prior to the study. Two sandblasted large-grit acid-etched (SLA) surface ITI implants were placed in the mandibular interforaminal area, following a standardized nonsubmerged surgical protocol. After 6 or 12 weeks of healing, matrices were processed into the fitting surface of the pre-existing mandibular dentures and the implants loaded. Implant success was determined using mobility tests and radiographs taken at baseline and 52 and 104 weeks after surgery. Clinical peri-implant parameters were also documented. Results showed all implants successfully osseointegrated, according to accepted criteria, after 2 years. Mean loss of crestal bone height after 1 year was 0.35 +/- 0.22 mm (control) vs. 0.27 +/- 0.18 mm (test). After 2 years this reduced to 0.09 +/- 0.06 mm (control) vs. 0.12 +/- 0.17 mm (test). The mean Periotest value after 1 year was -4.9 (control) vs.-3.78 (test). After 2 years, the mean resonance frequency value for the control implants was 6797 Hz [mean implant stability quotient (ISQ) = 64.77] and for the test implants 6670 Hz (mean ISQ = 62.0). Shortened loading periods for these ITI implants did not cause any statistically significant differences in osseointegration or peri-implant parameters. We conclude that pairs of unsplinted SLA-surface ITI implants can be successfully loaded with mandibular overdentures 6 weeks after surgery.