Vitamin D target proteins: function and regulation

J Cell Biochem. 2003 Feb 1;88(2):238-44. doi: 10.1002/jcb.10349.


Recent findings have indicated that calbindin-D(28k), the first known target of vitamin D action, is present in osteoblasts and protects against TNF and glucocorticoid induced apoptosis of osteoblastic cells. Cytokine mediated destruction of pancreatic beta cells, a cause of insulin dependent diabetes, is also inhibited by calbindin-D(28k). In calbindin-D(28k) transfected pancreatic beta cells free radical formation by cytokines is inhibited by calbindin. Thus, besides its role as a facilitator of calcium diffusion, calbindin has a major role in protecting against cellular degeneration in different cell types. Besides calbindin, the other known pronounced effect of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in intestine and kidney is increased synthesis of 25(OH)D(3) 24-hydroxylase (24(OH)ase) which is involved in the catabolism of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). We have noted that CCAAT enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta) is induced by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in kidney and osteoblastic cells and can enhance the transcriptional response of 24(OH)ase to 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). These studies establish C/EBPbeta as a novel 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) target gene and indicate a role for C/EBPbeta in 24(OH)ase transcription. These studies extend our previous studies related to factors that affect vitamin D receptor (VDR) mediated 24(OH)ase transcription (YY1, TFIIB, CBP) and the effect of signaling pathways on 24(OH)ase transcription and cofactor recruitment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis
  • CCAAT-Binding Factor / genetics
  • CCAAT-Binding Factor / metabolism
  • Calbindins
  • Calcium / metabolism*
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / metabolism*
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Humans
  • Receptors, Calcitriol / genetics
  • Receptors, Calcitriol / metabolism
  • S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / metabolism*
  • Steroid Hydroxylases / metabolism*
  • Vitamin D / metabolism*
  • Vitamin D / pharmacology
  • Vitamin D3 24-Hydroxylase


  • CCAAT-Binding Factor
  • Calbindins
  • Receptors, Calcitriol
  • S100 Calcium Binding Protein G
  • Vitamin D
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
  • Steroid Hydroxylases
  • Vitamin D3 24-Hydroxylase
  • Calcium