Several different methods have been developed to quantitate neutralizing antibody responses to human papillomaviruses (HPVs), including in vivo neutralization assays, in vitro pseudoneutralization assays, competitive radioimmunoassays (cRIAs), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. However, each of these techniques possesses one or more limitations that preclude testing large numbers of patient sera for use in natural history studies and large vaccine clinical trials. We describe here a new multiplexed assay, by using the Luminex Laboratory MultiAnalyte Profiling (LabMAP3) assay system, that can simultaneously quantitate neutralizing antibodies to human papillomavirus types 6, 11, 16, and 18 in 50 micro l of serum. The HPV-Luminex competitive immunoassay measures titers of polyclonal antibodies in serum capable of displacing phycoerythrin-labeled detection monoclonal antibodies binding to conformationally sensitive, neutralizing epitopes on the respective virus-like particles. This competitive Luminex immunoassay was found to be as sensitive, accurate, and precise as the currently used cRIAs. An effective HPV vaccine will most likely require several distinct genotypes to protect against multiple cancer causing papillomaviruses. The HPV-Luminex immunoassay should prove to be a useful tool in simultaneously quantitating antibody immune responses to multiple HPV genotypes for natural history infection studies and for monitoring the efficacy of prospective vaccines.