Backcross breeding with marker-assisted selection was used to construct an intervarietal set of part chromosome substitution lines in Brassica napus, formed from a cross between two winter varieties of oilseed rape: Tapidor and Victor. A total of 22 lines from this substitution library were examined over a 3-year period, in a total of nine field trials, for seed oil fatty acid composition and seed oil content. Trialing of the substitution lines gave evidence for the existence of 13 quantitative trait loci (QTL). All 13 QTL affected fatty acid composition of the seed, and were distributed among linkage groups 1, 3, 6, 7, 8, 11, 13, 14, 18, and 19. Seven of these QTL, on linkage groups 3, 6, 8, 13, 14, 18, and 19, also affected total seed oil content. The positions of these QTL are compared to those in the published literature and with respect to erucic acid QTL previously identified in a backcross population of the same cross. The substitution line approach gives increased precision and sensitivity for QTL mapping compared to other methods.