A ligand-based approach to understanding selectivity of nuclear hormone receptors PXR, CAR, FXR, LXRalpha, and LXRbeta

Pharm Res. 2002 Dec;19(12):1788-800. doi: 10.1023/a:1021429105173.


In recent years discussion of nuclear hormone receptors, transporters, and drug-metabolizing enzymes has begun to take place as our knowledge of the overlapping ligand specificity of each of these proteins has deepened. This ligand specificity is potentially valuable information for influencing future drug design, as it is important to avoid certain enzymes or transporters in order to circumvent potential drug-drug interactions. Similarly, it is critical that the induction of these same proteins via nuclear hormone receptors is avoided, as this can result in further toxicities. Using a ligand-based approach in this review we describe new and previously published computational models for PXR, CAR, FXR, LXRalpha, and LXRbeta that may help in understanding the complexity of interactions between transporters and enzymes. The value of these types of models is that they may enable us to design molecules to selectively modulate pathways for therapeutic effect and in addition predict the potential for drug interactions more reliably. Simultaneously, we might learn which came first: the transporter, the enzyme, or the nuclear hormone receptor?

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / chemistry
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Ligands
  • Liver X Receptors
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Orphan Nuclear Receptors
  • Pregnane X Receptor
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / chemistry*
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / genetics*
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / metabolism
  • Receptors, Steroid / chemistry
  • Receptors, Steroid / genetics
  • Receptors, Steroid / metabolism
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Transcription Factors / chemistry
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism


  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Ligands
  • Liver X Receptors
  • NR1H3 protein, human
  • Orphan Nuclear Receptors
  • Pregnane X Receptor
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear
  • Receptors, Steroid
  • Transcription Factors
  • farnesoid X-activated receptor
  • constitutive androstane receptor