Purpose: This descriptive analytical study assesses the cause, type, incidence, demographic, and treatment data of maxillofacial fractures managed at our medical center during a 5-year period and compares them with the existing body of literature on the subject.
Patients and methods: A 5-year retrospective clinical and epidemiologic study evaluated 237 patients treated for maxillofacial fractures from 1996 to 2001 at one medical center. There were 211 male patients (89%) and 26 (11%) female patients. The patients ranged in age from 3 to 73 years, with 59.0% (140 patients) in the 20- to 29-year age group. A number of parameters, including age, gender, cause of injury, site of injury, type of injury, treatment modalities, and complications, were evaluated. All maxillofacial injuries were assessed and treated by a single oral and maxillofacial surgeon. Other concomitant bodily injuries were treated by appropriate consultant specialists.
Results: There were 173 (72.9%) mandibular, 33 (13.9%) maxillary, 32 (13.5%) zygomatic, 57 (24.0%) zygomatico-orbital, 5 (2.1%) cranial, 5 (2.1%) nasal, and 4 (1.6%) frontal injuries. Car accidents caused 73 (30.8%), motorcycle accidents caused 55 (23.2%), altercations 23 (9.7%), sports 15 (6.3%), and warfare caused 23 (9.7%) of the maxillofacial injuries. Regarding distribution of mandibular fractures, 32% were seen in the condylar region, 29.3% in the symphyseal-parasymphyseal region, 20% in the angle region, 12.5% in the body, 3.1% in the ramus, 1.9% in the dentoalveolar, and 1.2% in the coronoid region. The distribution of maxillary fractures was Le Fort II in 18 (54.6%), Le Fort I in 8 (24.2%), Le Fort III in 4 (12.1%), and alveolar in 3 (9.1%). Of the 173 mandibular fractures, 56.9% were treated by closed reduction, 39.8% by open reduction, and 3.5% by observation only. Of 33 maxillary fractures, 54.6% were treated using closed reduction, 40.9% using open reduction, and 4.5% with observation only. Approximately 52.1% of the patients were treated under general anesthesia, and 47.9% were treated under local anesthesia and sedation. Postsurgical complications were recorded in 5% of patients. These complications included infection, asymmetry, and malocclusion. Overall mortality in this series was 0.84% (2 patients); mortality was caused by pulmonary infection.
Conclusion: The findings of this study, compared with similar studies reported in the literature, support the view that the causes and incidence of maxillofacial injuries vary from 1 country to another.
Copyright 2003 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons