Two genes YER081W and YIL074C, renamed SER3 and SER33, respectively, which encode phosphoglycerate dehydrogenases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified. These dehydrogenases catalyze the first reaction of serine and glycine biosynthesis from the glycolytic metabolite 3-phosphoglycerate. Unlike either single mutant, the ser3Delta ser33Delta double mutant lacks detectable phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase activity and is auxotrophic for serine or glycine for growth on glucose media. However, the requirement for the SER-dependent "phosphoglycerate pathway" is conditional since the "glyoxylate" route of serine/glycine biosynthesis is glucose-repressed. Thus, in cells grown on ethanol both expression and activity of all SER-encoded proteins are low, including the remaining enzymes of the phosphoglycerate pathway, Ser1p and Ser2p. Moreover the available nitrogen source regulates the expression of SER genes. However, for only SER33, and not SER3, expression was regulated in relation to the available nitrogen source in a coordinated fashion with SER1 and SER2. Based on these mRNA data together with data on enzyme activities, Ser33p is likely to be the main isoenzyme of the phosphoglycerate pathway during growth on glucose. Moreover, since phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase activity requires NAD(+) as cofactor, deletion of SER3 and SER33 markedly affected redox metabolism as shown by substrate and product analysis.