Foods commonly eaten in the United States, 1989-1991 and 1994-1996: are portion sizes changing?

J Am Diet Assoc. 2003 Jan;103(1):41-7. doi: 10.1053/jada.2003.50000.


Objective: To compare quantities consumed per eating occasion in 1989-1991 and 1994-1996 was the objective of this study.

Design: This study was a comparison over time. Subjects/setting Subjects were respondents in the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) in 1989-1991 or 1994-1996. Intake data were processed and analyzed to provide estimates of amounts of commonly eaten foods consumed per eating occasion. Statistical analyses performed Approximate t tests were used to compare quantities of foods consumed by 1989-1991 and 1994-1996 survey respondents. Analyses were conducted for all persons aged 2 years and over and for 10 age and sex groups. Significance was set at.001.

Results: Significant differences in amounts consumed were reported for approximately one third of the 107 foods examined. Larger amounts were reported in 1994-1996 by all persons aged 2 years and over and selected age/sex subgroups for several foods including soft drinks, coffee, tea, and ready-to-eat cereal. Smaller amounts were reported for fewer foods: margarine, mayonnaise, chicken, macaroni and cheese, and pizza.

Applications/conclusions: Amounts of foods consumed per eating occasion are widely used for the formation of public policy, counseling, and dietary assessment. Changes in amounts consumed should be monitored to evaluate the need for revisions in policy and diet assessment protocols.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Diet / trends*
  • Diet Surveys
  • Eating*
  • Energy Intake*
  • Feeding Behavior*
  • Female
  • Food / classification
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutrition Policy
  • United States