Pathogenic fungi in the genus Candida can cause both superficial and serious systemic disease, and are now recognized as major agents of hospital-acquired infection. Many Candida infections involve the formation of biofilms on implanted devices such as indwelling catheters or prosthetic heart valves. Biofilms of Candida albicans formed in vitro on catheter material consist of matrix-enclosed microcolonies of yeasts and hyphae, arranged in a bilayer structure. The biofilms are resistant to a range of antifungal agents currently in clinical use, including amphotericin B and fluconazole, and there appear to be multiple resistance mechanisms. Recent studies with mixed biofilms containing Candida and bacterial species suggest that extensive and striking interactions occur between the prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells in these adherent populations.