Isolation of a new dual-functional caffeine synthase gene encoding an enzyme for the conversion of 7-methylxanthine to caffeine from coffee (Coffea arabica L.)

FEBS Lett. 2003 Jan 16;534(1-3):75-81. doi: 10.1016/s0014-5793(02)03781-x.


In coffee and tea plants, caffeine is synthesized from xanthosine via a pathway that includes three methylation steps. We report the isolation of a bifunctional coffee caffeine synthase (CCS1) clone from coffee endosperm by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique using previously reported sequence information for theobromine synthases (CTSs). The predicted amino acid sequences of CCS1 are more than 80% identical to CTSs and are about 40% similar to those of tea caffeine synthase (TCS1). Interestingly, CCS1 has dual methylation activity like tea TCS1.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Coffea / genetics
  • Coffea / metabolism*
  • DNA, Complementary
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Methylation
  • Methyltransferases / chemistry
  • Methyltransferases / genetics*
  • Methyltransferases / metabolism*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Recombinant Proteins / genetics
  • Recombinant Proteins / metabolism
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Theobromine / metabolism
  • Xanthines / metabolism*


  • DNA, Complementary
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Xanthines
  • 7-methylxanthine
  • Methyltransferases
  • caffeine synthase
  • Theobromine

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AB086414
  • GENBANK/AB086415