The genetic variability at seven Y-chromosomal microsatellite loci was studied among 113 Sardinian males from the regions of Campidano of Cagliari, Nuorese and Gallura. The allelic and haplotypes frequency distributions are compared between our sample and from the available literature data on Mediterranean and European populations. As a result, the Sardinian samples showed a very high allele frequency in the DYS19*17, a rarity in the rest of Europe, probably due to the founder effect. The analysis has shown an intra-population genetic heterogeneity and genetic differentiation from other Mediterranean and European population deal with. The results reported in this work showed that of the Euro-Mediterranean populations, the Corsican of the South seems to have the most genetic affinity with the Sardinians, thereby reaffirming the observations from previous works that had suggested a certain level of genetic similarity.