Mutations in gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE in quinolone-resistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

APMIS. 2002 Sep;110(9):651-7. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0463.2002.1100909.x.


Mutations in the genes for the subunits GyrA and ParC of the target enzymes DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV are important mechanisms of resistance in quinolone-resistant bacteria, including Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The target enzymes also consist of the subunits GyrB and ParE, respectively, though their role in quinolone-resistance has not been fully investigated. We sequenced the quinolone-resistance-determining regions (QRDR) of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE in 25 ciprofloxacin-resistant strains from Bangladesh (MIC 4-->32 mg/l) and 5 susceptible strains of N. gonorrhoeae. All the resistant strains had three or four mutations. Two of these were at positions 91 and 95 of gyrA. Fourteen strains had an additional mutation in parC at position 91, and 17 strains had an additional mutation in parE in position 439. No alterations were found in gyrB. The five susceptible strains had identical DNA sequences. Data indicate that the mutations detected in the QRDR of gyrA and parC may be important in the development of quinolone resistance. According to transformation experiments we assume that the alteration in parE is not related to a high degree of quinolone resistance. There was no correlation between ciprofloxacin MICs and pattern or number of mutations in the target genes.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Infective Agents / pharmacology*
  • Ciprofloxacin / pharmacology
  • DNA Gyrase / genetics*
  • DNA Topoisomerase IV / genetics*
  • Drug Resistance, Bacterial
  • Female
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Mutation
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae / classification
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae / drug effects
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae / genetics*
  • Serotyping


  • Anti-Infective Agents
  • Ciprofloxacin
  • DNA Topoisomerase IV
  • DNA Gyrase