Sphingosine kinase, sphingosine-1-phosphate, and apoptosis

Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002 Dec 30;1585(2-3):193-201. doi: 10.1016/s1388-1981(02)00341-4.


The sphingolipid metabolites ceramide (Cer), sphingosine (Sph), and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) play an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation, survival, and cell death. Cer and Sph usually inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis, while the further metabolite S1P stimulates growth and suppresses apoptosis. Because these metabolites are interconvertible, it has been proposed that it is not the absolute amounts of these metabolites but rather their relative levels that determines cell fate. The relevance of this "sphingolipid rheostat" and its role in regulating cell fate has been borne out by work in many labs using many different cell types and experimental manipulations. A central finding of these studies is that Sph kinase (SphK), the enzyme that phosphorylates Sph to form S1P, is a critical regulator of the sphingolipid rheostat, as it not only produces the pro-growth, anti-apoptotic messenger S1P, but also decreases levels of pro-apoptotic Cer and Sph. Given the role of the sphingolipid rheostat in regulating growth and apoptosis, it is not surprising that sphingolipid metabolism is often found to be disregulated in cancer, a disease characterized by enhanced cell growth, diminished cell death, or both. Anticancer therapeutics targeting SphK are potentially clinically relevant. Indeed, inhibition of SphK has been shown to suppress gastric tumor growth [Cancer Res. 51 (1991) 1613] and conversely, overexpression of SphK increases tumorigenicity [Curr. Biol. 10 (2000) 1527]. Moreover, S1P has also been shown to regulate angiogenesis, or new blood vessel formation [Cell 99 (1999) 301], which is critical for tumor progression. Furthermore, there is intriguing new evidence that S1P can act in an autocrine and/or paracrine fashion [Science 291 (2001) 1800] to regulate blood vessel formation [J. Clin. Invest. 106 (2000) 951]. Thus, SphK may not only protect tumors from apoptosis, it may also increase their vascularization, further enhancing growth. The cytoprotective effects of SphK/S1P may also be important for clinical benefit, as S1P has been shown to protect oocytes from radiation-induced cell death in vivo [Nat. Med. 6 (2000) 1109]. Here we review the growing literature on the regulation of SphK and the role of SphK and its product, S1P, in apoptosis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anoikis / drug effects
  • Apoptosis / physiology*
  • Binding Sites
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Survival
  • Ceramides / metabolism
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Enzyme Activation
  • Humans
  • Lysophospholipids*
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism
  • Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor) / biosynthesis
  • Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor) / genetics
  • Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor) / physiology*
  • Proteins / metabolism
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae
  • Second Messenger Systems
  • Sphingosine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Sphingosine / metabolism
  • Sphingosine / pharmacology
  • Sphingosine / physiology*
  • TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 2


  • Ceramides
  • Lysophospholipids
  • Proteins
  • TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 2
  • sphingosine 1-phosphate
  • Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor)
  • sphingosine kinase
  • Sphingosine