The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of dietary flavonoids, which are present in fruits, vegetables, and plant-derived beverages, on the transport of daunomycin (DNM) and vinblastine (VBL) in Panc-1 cells. Panc-1 is a human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line, which expresses Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein1 (MRP1). The 2-h accumulation of (3)H-DNM and (3)H-VBL was determined in the presence and absence of 22 flavonoids. Biochanin-A, genistein, quercetin, chalcone, silymarin, phloretin, morin, and kaempferol, at 100 microM concentrations, all significantly increased the accumulation of both DNM and VBL in Panc-1 cells, with morin increasing DNM and VBL accumulation by 546 +/- 50% (mean +/- SE, n = 9) and 553 +/- 37% (n = 9), respectively. Fisetin treatment significantly decreased the accumulation of both DNM and VBL. Concentration-dependent studies demonstrated significant effects on VBL accumulation at 50 microM, but not at 10 microM concentrations, except for chalcone that was effective at a 10 microM concentration. Following a 24-h incubation, there were no changes in MRP1 membrane expression or glutathione-S-transferase activity in cells. Cellular glutathione (GSH) concentrations were significantly decreased following a 2-h incubation with biochanin A, chalcone, genistein, phloretin, quercetin, and silymarin, and following a 24-h incubation with biochanin A, chalcone, genistein, and phloretin. These results therefore indicate that the flavonoids morin, chalcone, silymarin, phloretin, genistein, quercetin, biochanin A, and kaempferol can inhibit MRP1-mediated drug transport, effects that may involve binding interactions with MRP1, as well as modulation of GSH concentrations.
Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmaceutical Association J Pharm Sci 92:250-257, 2003