The provisional license: nighttime and passenger restrictions--a literature review

J Safety Res. 2003 Jan;34(1):51-61. doi: 10.1016/s0022-4375(02)00081-6.


Problem: Due to inexperience and inadequate driving skills, the road is a very risky place for young and beginning drivers, yet such experience and skills can only be built by increased driving and exposure to risks on the road. Graduated driver licensing (GDL) allows beginning drivers to get their initial driving experience under less risky conditions and gradually eases them into more complex driving situations. This paper reviews the literature exploring two key features of the intermediate licensing phase of GDL, nighttime driving restrictions and passenger restrictions.

Method: Literature review.

Results: Nighttime driving restrictions have been shown to effectively reduce the number and rate of crash involvements on the part of teenage drivers. Data suggest that having passengers in the car increases the likelihood of a fatal injury in young drivers and that this risk increases with the number of passengers. Young drivers were more likely to cause a crash when accompanied by their peers.

Discussion: Nighttime driving and passenger restrictions are effective in decreasing injuries among teenage drivers and their passengers, especially in the context of a full GDL system. Several research questions remain to be answered in order to fully refine and optimize the impact of these provisional measures.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Age Factors
  • Automobile Driving / legislation & jurisprudence*
  • Automobile Driving / psychology
  • Darkness
  • Female
  • Friends
  • Humans
  • Licensure / classification
  • Licensure / legislation & jurisprudence*
  • Male
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Time
  • United States