Minireview: parathyroid hormone-related protein as an intracrine factor--trafficking mechanisms and functional consequences

Endocrinology. 2003 Feb;144(2):407-11. doi: 10.1210/en.2002-220818.


PTH-related protein (PTHrP) was originally discovered as the factor responsible for humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. PTHrP is produced by most cell types and is a prohormone that gives rise to a family of mature secretory forms arising from posttranslational endoproteolytic cleavage of the initial translation product. Each of these secretory forms of PTHrP is believed to have one or more of its own receptors on the cell surface that mediates the normal paracrine, autocrine, and endocrine actions of PTHrP. Recently, evidence has accumulated that indicates that PTHrP is also able to enter the nucleus and/or the nucleolus and influence cellular events in an intracrine fashion. This review discusses the mechanisms by which PTHrP may gain access to the nucleus/nucleolus and the functional consequences of this nuclear entry by PTHrP.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cell Nucleus / metabolism*
  • Cytoplasm / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Neurosecretory Systems / metabolism*
  • Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein
  • Peptide Hormones / metabolism*
  • Protein Transport / physiology*


  • PTHLH protein, human
  • Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein
  • Peptide Hormones