Interest in the field of transport ATPases has grown dramatically during the past 20 years and gained considerable visibility for several reasons. First, it was shown that most transport ATPases can be lumped into only a few categories designated simply as P, V, F, and ABC types, the latter consisting of a large superfamily. Second, it has been shown that many transport ATPases have a clear relevance to human disease. Third, the field of transport ATPases has become rather advanced in the study of the reaction mechanisms and structure-function relationships associated with several of these enzymes. Finally, the Nobel committee recently recognized major accomplishments in this field of research. Here, the author provides a brief discussion of transport ATPases that are present in biological systems and their relevance or possible relevance to human disease.