Copper transporting P-type ATPases and human disease

J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2002 Oct;34(5):333-8. doi: 10.1023/a:1021293818125.


Copper transporting P-type ATPases, designated ATP7A and ATP7B, play an essential role in mammalian copper balance. Impaired intestinal transport of copper, resulting from mutations in the ATP7A gene, lead to Menkes disease in humans. Defects in a similar gene, the copper transporting ATPase ATP7B, result in Wilson disease. This ATP7B transporter has two functions: transport of copper into the plasma protein ceruloplasmin, and elimination of copper through the bile. Variants of ATP7B can be functionally assayed to identify defects in each of these functions. Tissue expression studies of the copper ATPases and their copper chaperone ATOX1 indicate that there is not complete overlap in expression. Other chaperones may be important for the transport of copper into ATP7A and ATP7B.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Triphosphatases / genetics*
  • Adenosine Triphosphatases / metabolism
  • Cation Transport Proteins / genetics*
  • Cation Transport Proteins / metabolism
  • Copper / metabolism*
  • Copper-Transporting ATPases
  • Hepatolenticular Degeneration / enzymology
  • Hepatolenticular Degeneration / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Menkes Kinky Hair Syndrome / enzymology
  • Menkes Kinky Hair Syndrome / genetics
  • Metal Metabolism, Inborn Errors / genetics*
  • Metallochaperones
  • Molecular Chaperones / metabolism
  • Mutation, Missense*
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins*


  • ATOX1 protein, human
  • Cation Transport Proteins
  • Metallochaperones
  • Molecular Chaperones
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Copper
  • Adenosine Triphosphatases
  • ATP7A protein, human
  • ATP7B protein, human
  • Copper-Transporting ATPases