Background: Low dietary vitamin K intake has been associated with an increased risk of hip fracture in men and women. Few data exist on the association between dietary vitamin K intake and bone mineral density (BMD).
Objective: We studied cross-sectional associations between self-reported dietary vitamin K intake and BMD of the hip and spine in men and women aged 29-86 y.
Design: BMD was measured at the hip and spine in 1112 men and 1479 women (macro x +/- SD age: 59 +/- 9 y) who participated in the Framingham Heart Study (1996-2000). Dietary and supplemental intakes of vitamin K were assessed with the use of a food-frequency questionnaire. Additional covariates included age, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol use, physical activity score, and menopause status and current estrogen use among the women.
Results: Women in the lowest quartile of vitamin K intake (macro x: 70.2 microg/d) had significantly (P < or = 0.005) lower mean (+/- SEM) BMD at the femoral neck (0.854 +/- 0.006 g/cm(2)) and spine (1.140 +/- 0.010 g/cm(2)) than did those in the highest quartile of vitamin K intake (macro x: 309 microg/d): 0.888 +/- 0.006 and 1.190 +/- 0.010 g/cm(2), respectively. These associations remained after potential confounders were controlled for and after stratification by age or supplement use. No significant association was found between dietary vitamin K intake and BMD in men.
Conclusions: Low dietary vitamin K intake was associated with low BMD in women, consistent with previous reports that low dietary vitamin K intake is associated with an increased risk of hip fracture. In contrast, there was no association between dietary vitamin K intake and BMD in men.