Inflammatory lung diseases are characterized by chronic inflammation and oxidant/antioxidant imbalance. The sources of the increased oxidative stress in patients with chronic inflammatory lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) derive from the increased burden of inhaled oxidants, and from the increased amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by several inflammatory, immune and various structural cells of the airways. Increased levels of ROS produced in the airways is reflected by increased markers of oxidative stress in the airspaces, sputum, breath, lungs and blood in patients with lung diseases. ROS, either directly or via the formation of lipid peroxidation products such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal may play a role in enhancing the inflammation through the activation of stress kinases (JNK, MAPK, p38) and redox sensitive transcription factors such as NF-capital KJE, MacedonianB and AP-1. Recent evidences have indicated that oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory mediators can alter nuclear histone acetylation/deacetylation allowing access for transcription factor DNA binding leading to enhanced pro-inflammatory gene expression in various lung cells. Understanding of the mechanisms of redox signaling, NF-kappaB/AP-1 regulation, the balance between histone acetylation and deacetylation and the release and expression of pro- and antiinflammatory mediators may lead to the development of novel therapies based on the pharmacological manipulation of antioxidants in lung inflammation and injury. Antioxidants that have effective wide spectrum activity and good bioavailability, thiols or molecules which have dual antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, may be potential therapeutic agents which not only protect against the direct injurious effects of oxidants, but may fundamentally alter the underlying inflammatory processes which play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory lung diseases.