Caloric restriction has been shown to increase longevity in organisms ranging from yeast to mammals. In some organisms, this has been associated with a decreased fat mass and alterations in insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) pathways. To further explore these associations with enhanced longevity, we studied mice with a fat-specific insulin receptor knockout (FIRKO). These animals have reduced fat mass and are protected against age-related obesity and its subsequent metabolic abnormalities, although their food intake is normal. Both male and female FIRKO mice were found to have an increase in mean life-span of approximately 134 days (18%), with parallel increases in median and maximum life-spans. Thus, a reduction of fat mass without caloric restriction can be associated with increased longevity in mice, possibly through effects on insulin signaling.