Purpose: Previous reports have identified bacteria in the prostate of men with chronic pelvic pain syndrome. To examine whether prostatic bacteria are more prevalent among patients with chronic pelvic pain syndrome than among those without pelvic pain, we compared 4-glass urine test and prostate biopsy results.
Materials and methods: A total of 120 patients with types IIIa and IIIb chronic pelvic pain syndrome and 60 asymptomatic controls underwent a standard 4-glass urine test, examination of expressed prostatic secretion leukocytes by hemocytometer and transperineal, digitally guided prostate biopsies. Tissue was cultured for aerobes, anaerobes, Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis and herpes simplex virus. Skin cultures were performed on a subset of patients and controls.
Results: Positive prostate biopsy cultures were obtained from patients and controls. Bacteria were found in 45 of 118 pain patients (38%) and in 21 of 59 controls (36%) (p = 0.74). Older men were more likely to have positive cultures. Men with type IIIa chronic pelvic pain syndrome were more likely than those with type IIIb to have positive prostate biopsy cultures.
Conclusions: Bacteria cultured from transperineal prostatic biopsies do not differ between men with and without chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Prostatic bacteria obtained by biopsy are probably not etiologically related to the symptoms in the majority of men with chronic pelvic pain syndrome.