Ankylosing spondylitis in the pharaohs of ancient Egypt

Rheumatol Int. 2003 Jan;23(1):1-5. doi: 10.1007/s00296-002-0242-7. Epub 2002 Sep 13.


Background: Among the pharaohs of the 18th and 19th dynasty of Old Egypt, at least three had ankylosing spondylitis: Amenhotep (Amenophis) II, Ramses II ("The Great"), and his son Merenptah.

Objective: An illustrated review is given on the radiological indications for their disease, together with the rough history of these pharaohs, the history of their tombs, of the detection of their mummies in the 19th century and of their paleopathological investigation.

Publication types

  • Historical Article

MeSH terms

  • Egypt, Ancient
  • History, Ancient
  • Humans
  • Mummies / history*
  • Spondylitis, Ankylosing / history*