Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for refractory chronic pseudophakic cystoid macular edema

J Cataract Refract Surg. 2003 Jan;29(1):27-33. doi: 10.1016/s0886-3350(02)01441-4.


Purpose: To determine the safety and efficacy of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (TAAC) injections in patients with refractory cystoid macular edema (CME) after cataract extraction.

Setting: LSU Eye Center, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.

Methods: In this nonrandomized retrospective case review, 8 eyes of 8 patients with a history of pseudophakic CME recalcitrant to current standard treatment modalities were enrolled. The mean duration of the CME was 20 months. The patients received intravitreal injections of 1 mg of TAAC and were followed for a mean of 8 months. The main outcome measures included visual acuity, the presence of CME on biomicroscopic examination, angiographic evidence of perifoveal leakage, intraocular pressure (IOP), and complications related to treatment.

Results: The visual acuity increased in all patients. The magnitude of improvement was mainly restricted by underlying macular pathology and correlated well with the level of visual acuity at entry into the study. Angiographic improvement occurred in all patients. Temporary increases in IOP were easily controlled with topical medications. No other adverse effects could be attributed to this technique. Repeated injections were required.

Conclusions: Intravitreal administration of TAAC was safe and effective in recalcitrant cases of pseudophakic CME with a beneficial effect on the macular edema and visual acuity. A prospective randomized study is needed to determine with accuracy the efficacy, safety, and exact timing of this technique and possibly to recognize subtypes with a more favorable response. Repeated injections were required in all eyes. The development of a sustained-release intravitreal drug-delivery system would be beneficial.

MeSH terms

  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones / administration & dosage*
  • Aged
  • Female
  • Fluorescein Angiography
  • Humans
  • Injections
  • Macular Edema / drug therapy*
  • Macular Edema / pathology
  • Macular Edema / physiopathology
  • Male
  • Ophthalmoscopy
  • Pseudophakia
  • Retreatment
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Triamcinolone Acetonide / administration & dosage*
  • Visual Acuity / drug effects
  • Vitreous Body*


  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones
  • Triamcinolone Acetonide