Racial/ethnic differences in adult vaccination among individuals with diabetes

Am J Public Health. 2003 Feb;93(2):324-9. doi: 10.2105/ajph.93.2.324.


Objectives: This study examined whether differences in access to health care, health coverage, and socioeconomic status (SES) explained racial differences in influenza and pneumococcal vaccination rates in individuals with diabetes.

Methods: We analyzed data on 1906 individuals from the 1998 National Health Interview Survey. We used multiple logistic regression to adjust for race/ethnicity, age, access to care, health insurance, and SES, and used SUDAAN for statistical analyses to yield national estimates.

Results: Whites had higher vaccination rates than did African Americans or Hispanics. After adjustment for covariates, race/ethnicity predicted receipt of both vaccines independent of age, access to care, health care coverage, and SES.

Conclusions: Racial disparity in vaccination rates for adults with diabetes is independent of access to care, health care coverage, and SES.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Diabetes Mellitus / ethnology*
  • Ethnic Groups / psychology*
  • Ethnic Groups / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Health Services Accessibility*
  • Humans
  • Influenza Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Patient Acceptance of Health Care / ethnology*
  • Pneumococcal Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • United States
  • Vaccination / statistics & numerical data*


  • Influenza Vaccines
  • Pneumococcal Vaccines