Muscle regeneration in amphibians and mammals: passing the torch

Dev Dyn. 2003 Feb;226(2):167-81. doi: 10.1002/dvdy.10223.


Skeletal muscle in both amphibians and mammals possesses a high regenerative capacity. In amphibians, a muscle can regenerate in two distinct ways: as a tissue component of an entire regenerating limb (epimorphic regeneration) or as an isolated entity (tissue regeneration). In the absence of epimorphic regenerative ability, mammals can regenerate muscles only by the tissue mode. This review focuses principally on the regeneration of entire muscles and covers what is known and what remains to be elucidated about fundamental mechanisms underlying muscle regeneration at this level.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aging / physiology
  • Amphibians / physiology*
  • Amputation
  • Animals
  • Extremities / surgery
  • Mammals / physiology*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology*
  • Regeneration*