This study examined relationships between psychosocial factors and asthma rehospitalization patterns in 115 children (ages 4-15) who had > or = 1 hospitalization during the study period. Lifetime history of hospitalizations and new hospitalizations during a 1-year follow-up period were measured, controlling for baseline asthma symptoms and medications. Prospectively, caretaker characteristics (lower sense of mastery, being less emotionally bothered by asthma) predicted greater likelihood of future asthma hospitalizations. Lifetime history of hospitalizations was associated with family impacts (greater family strain and family conflict greater financial strain) as well as caretaker characteristics (greater personal strain, beliefs about not being able to manage one's child's asthma). These findings could help guide future interventions targeted at the subgroup of children who represent a high proportion of asthma hospitalizations.