Objective: This article reviews the electroencephalography (EEG) literature in relation to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD).
Methods: The review briefly outlines the history of the disorder, focusing on the changing diagnostic systems which both reflect and constrain research into AD/HD. Both qualitative and quantitative EEG studies are examined, and their results are discussed in relation to various models of AD/HD. Implications of these data for future research and development in AD/HD are considered.
Results: In terms of resting EEG, elevated relative theta power, and reduced relative alpha and beta, together with elevated theta/alpha and theta/beta ratios, are most reliably associated with AD/HD. Theta/alpha and theta/beta ratios also discriminate diagnostic subgroups of AD/HD. Recent studies of EEG heterogeneity in this disorder indicate the existence of different profiles of cortical anomalies which may cut across diagnostic types.
Conclusions: The research to date has identified a substantial number of EEG correlates of AD/HD which hold promise for improving our understanding of the brain dysfunction(s) underlying the disorder. Further work in this field may benefit from a broader conceptual approach, integrating EEG and other measures of brain function.