The Costello syndrome is characterized by prenatally increased growth, postnatal growth retardation, coarse face, loose skin resembling cutis laxa, nonprogressive cardiomyopathy, developmental delay, and a outgoing, friendly behavior. Patients can develop papillomata, especially around the mouth, and have a predisposition for malignancies (mainly abdominal and pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma in childhood). Costello syndrome is likely to be an autosomal dominant disorder. The pathogenesis is unclear, but there are many clues for a disturbed elastogenesis, possibly through a disturbed elastin-binding protein reuse by chondroitin sulfate-bearing proteoglycans accumulation. A review of the findings in the 73 patients that have been described in sufficient detail is provided.
Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.