Pyrroloquinoline quinone improves growth and reproductive performance in mice fed chemically defined diets

Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2003 Feb;228(2):160-6. doi: 10.1177/153537020322800205.


Growth, reproductive performance, and indices of collagen maturation and expression were investigated in Balb/c mice fed chemically defined, amino acid-based diets with or without the addition 6 micro Mpyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)/kg diet. The diets were fed to virgin mice for 8 weeks before breeding. At weaning, the pups from successful pregnancies were fed the same diet as their respective dams. Reproductive performance was compromised in mice fed diets devoid of PQQ, and their offspring grew at slower rates than offspring from mice fed diets supplemented with PQQ. Successful mating (confirmed vaginal plugs) was not affected by the presence or absence of PQQ; however, pup viability (number of pups at parturition/number of pups at Day 4 of lactation) was decreased in PQQ-deprived mice. Conception (percentage of females giving live births) and fertility (percentage of births) were also decreased in PQQ-deprived mice. The slower rates of growth in offspring from PQQ-deprived mice were associated with decreased steady-state mRNA levels for Type I procollagen alpha(1)-chains in skin and lungs from neonatal mice. Values for lysyl oxidase accumulation as protein in PQQ-deficient mice also tended to be lower than corresponding values from PQQ-supplemented or -replete mice. Skin collagen solubility was increased in PQQ-deprived mice. These results indicate that PQQ supplementation can improve reproductive performance, growth, and may modulate indices of neonatal extracellular matrix production and maturation in mice fed chemically defined, but otherwise nutritionally complete diets.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Collagen Type I / genetics
  • Collagen Type I / metabolism
  • Female
  • Fertility
  • Food, Formulated*
  • Growth*
  • Humans
  • Lung / chemistry
  • Lung / metabolism
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Molecular Structure
  • PQQ Cofactor
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Outcome
  • Protein-Lysine 6-Oxidase / genetics
  • Protein-Lysine 6-Oxidase / metabolism
  • Quinolones / administration & dosage*
  • Quinolones / metabolism
  • Quinones / administration & dosage*
  • Quinones / metabolism
  • Reproduction*
  • Skin / chemistry
  • Skin / metabolism


  • Collagen Type I
  • Quinolones
  • Quinones
  • PQQ Cofactor
  • Protein-Lysine 6-Oxidase