Hearing assessment in infants and children: recommendations beyond neonatal screening

Pediatrics. 2003 Feb;111(2):436-40. doi: 10.1542/peds.111.2.436.


Congenital or acquired hearing loss in infants and children has been linked with lifelong deficits in speech and language acquisition, poor academic performance, personal-social maladjustments, and emotional difficulties. Identification of hearing loss through neonatal hearing screening as well as objective hearing screening of all infants and children can prevent or reduce many of these adverse consequences. This report outlines the risk indicators for hearing loss, provides guidance for when and how to assess hearing loss, and addresses hearing referral resources for children of all ages.

Publication types

  • Guideline
  • Practice Guideline

MeSH terms

  • Bronchoscopy
  • Child, Preschool
  • Diagnostic Techniques, Otological / instrumentation
  • Diagnostic Techniques, Otological / standards
  • Health Planning Guidelines*
  • Hearing Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Mass Screening / instrumentation
  • Mass Screening / methods
  • Mass Screening / standards
  • Neonatal Screening / instrumentation
  • Neonatal Screening / methods*
  • Neonatal Screening / standards
  • Otolaryngology / methods
  • Physical Examination / instrumentation
  • Physical Examination / methods
  • Referral and Consultation
  • Risk Factors