Tor signalling in bugs, brain and brawn

Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2003 Feb;4(2):117-26. doi: 10.1038/nrm1018.


TOR--a highly conserved atypical protein kinase and the 'target of rapamycin', an immunosuppressant and anti-cancer drug--controls cell growth. TOR controls the growth of proliferating yeast, fly and mammalian cells in response to nutrients. Recent findings, however, indicate that TOR also controls the growth of non-proliferating cells, such as neurons and muscle cells. Furthermore, TOR, by associating with regulatory proteins and inhibiting phosphatases, controls the activity of multiphosphorylated effectors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Drosophila Proteins / physiology*
  • Drosophila melanogaster
  • Humans
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / physiology*
  • Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor) / physiology*
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / physiology*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins / physiology*
  • Signal Transduction*
  • Tacrolimus Binding Protein 1A / physiology*


  • Drosophila Proteins
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
  • Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor)
  • TOR1 protein, S cerevisiae
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • tor protein, Drosophila
  • Tacrolimus Binding Protein 1A