Methods to reduce the impact of intraclass correlation in group-randomized trials

Eval Rev. 2003 Feb;27(1):79-103. doi: 10.1177/0193841X02239019.


This study reports intraclass correlation (ICC) for dependent variables used in group-randomized trials (GRTs). The authors also document the effect of two methods suggested to reduce the impact of ICC in GRTs; these two methods are modeling time and regression adjustment for covariates. They coded and analyzed 1,188 ICC estimates from 17 published, in press, and unpublished articles representing 21 studies. Findings confirm that both methods can improve the efficiency of analyses shown to be valid across conditions common in GRTs. Investigators planning GRTs should obtain ICC estimates matched to their planned analysis so that they can size their studies properly.

MeSH terms

  • Analysis of Variance
  • Humans
  • Models, Statistical*
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic / statistics & numerical data*
  • Regression Analysis
  • Research Design*
  • Time Factors