Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders. Typical medications used to treat patients are benzodiazepines or antidepressants that target serotonin (5-HT) activity. The ionotropic 5-HT(3) receptor has emerged as a potential therapeutic target because selective antagonist compounds reduce anxiety in rodents, primates, and humans. 5-HT binds to the extracellular N-terminus of the 5-HT(3A) receptor subunit, but receptor activation is also enhanced by distinct allosteric sites. It is not known if specific molecular subunits of the 5-HT(3) receptor modulate anxiety. To address this issue, we characterized anxiety-like behavior of mice with a targeted deletion of the 5-HT(3A) receptor subunit gene in the light/dark box, elevated plus maze, and novelty interaction animal models of anxiety. 5-HT(3A) null mice exhibited an anxiolytic behavioral phenotype that was highly correlated across behavioral measures. This evidence indicates that the 5-HT(3A) molecular subunit influences anxiety-like behavior. Pharmacotherapy that targets specifically the 5-HT(3A) receptor subunit may provide a novel treatment for anxiety disorders.