Effect of shoe inserts on kinematics, center of pressure, and leg joint moments during running

Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003 Feb;35(2):314-9. doi: 10.1249/01.MSS.0000048828.02268.79.


Purpose: The purposes of this project were to assess the effect of four different shoe inserts on the path of the center of pressure (COP), to quantify the effect of these inserts on selected knee joint moments during running, and to assess the potential of COP data to predict the effects of inserts/orthotics on knee joint moments.

Methods: Kinematics for the lower extremities, resultant ankle and knee joint moments, and the path of the COP were collected from the right foot of 15 male subjects while running heel-toe with five different shoe inserts (full or half with 4.5-mm postings).

Results: Individual movement changes with respect to the neutral insert condition were typically small and not systematic. Significant changes for the path of the COP were registered only for the full lateral insert condition with an average shift toward the lateral side. The mediolateral shift of the COP was not consistent for the full medial and the two half-shoe inserts. The subject-specific reactions to the inserts' intervention in the corresponding knee joint moments were typically not consistent. Compared with the neutral insert condition, subjects showed increases or decreases of the knee joint moments. The correlation between the individual COP shifts and the resultant knee joint moment was generally small.

Conclusion: The results of this study showed that subject-specific reactions to the tested inserts were often not as expected. Additionally, reactions were not consistent between the subjects. This result suggests that the prescription of inserts and/or orthotics is a difficult task and that methods must be developed to test and assess these effects. Such methods, however, are not currently available.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Ankle Joint / physiology*
  • Athletic Injuries / prevention & control*
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Humans
  • Knee Joint / physiology*
  • Male
  • Orthotic Devices*
  • Pressure
  • Running / injuries*
  • Running / physiology*
  • Shoes*
  • Weight-Bearing