Prostate cancer prevention by key elements present in human nutrients derived from plants and fruits has been confirmed in various cell cultures and tumor models. Resveratrol (RE), a phytoalexin, induces remarkable inhibitory effects in prostate carcinogenesis via diverse cellular mechanisms associated with tumor initiation, promotion and progression. Earlier studies have shown that RE alters the expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation and apoptosis, including cyclins, cdks, p53 and cdk inhibitors. However, most of the p53-controlled effects related to the role of RE in transcription either by activation or repression of a sizable number of primary and secondary target genes have not been investigated. Our study examined whether RE activates a cascade of p53-directed genes that are involved in apoptosis mechanism(s) or whether it modifies the androgen receptor and its co-activators directly or indirectly and induces cell growth inhibition. We demonstrate by DNA microarray, RT-PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses that treatment of androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells (LNCaP) with 10(-5) M RE for 48 hr downregulates prostate-specific antigen (PSA), AR co-activator ARA 24 and NF-kB p65. Altered expression of these genes is associated with an activation of p53-responsive genes such as p53, PIG 7, p21(Waf1-Cip1), p300/CBP and Apaf-1. The effect of RE on p300/CBP plays a central role in its cancer preventive mechanisms in LNCaP cells. Our results implicate activation of more than one set of functionally related molecular targets. At this point we have identified some of the key molecular targets associated with AR and p53 target genes. These findings point to the need for further extensive studies on AR co-activators, such as p300, its central role in post-translational modifications such as acetylation of p53 and/or AR by RE in a time- and dose-dependent manner at different stages of prostate cancer that will fully elucidate the role of RE as a chemopreventive agent for prostate cancer in humans.
Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.